trafficking in persons report 2020

When Mary was in second grade, she stopped attending school just before final exams. Veronica left her indigenous community in Colombia for a domestic service position in the capital city, Bogotá. Maxwell Matewere is a proven anti-trafficking activist in Malawi. Emily A. Korenak Papua New Guinea The ratio between risk and reward is expanding in their favor. The first efforts to address trafficking in persons focused heavily on combating the sex trafficking of women and girls. Academic reports and news articles illustrated the effect traffickers were having on individuals and communities around the world. An evidence-based universal education model helps empower survivors through opportunities to share their experiences while building trust with providers. Public and private health care institutions, universities, and community organizations have been developing innovative partnerships and practices to provide specialized and comprehensive health care to survivors. The growing number of young players aspiring to become professional athletes and the potential to sign the next greatest deal inevitably draws human traffickers looking to profit from the exploitation of players’ dreams. Finland Azerbaijan Vanuatu During the 13-year stabilization mission in Haiti, peacekeepers allegedly coerced women and girls into sex in exchange for necessities such as food. Monica Maurer New Zealand Colonel Rigzin has developed innovative practices for compiling human trafficking-related data and was responsible for establishing a human trafficking awareness program for Bhutanese citizens traveling overseas for employment. The Bahamas Significant exploration regarding trauma bonding among labor trafficking victims is needed. Significant progress is already under way in addressing these issues. Nor are faith communities hemmed in by borders. Peacekeeping Operations The following is a product of the Human Trafficking Expert Consultant Network funded by the TIP Office. Megan Hjelle-Lantsman There has never been a more important moment to engage the fight for freedom. Each year, the Department of State honors individuals around the world who have devoted their lives to the fight against human trafficking. $209,000 The following year, a country must either go up to Tier 2 or down to Tier 3. Nina Balabayeva has dedicated her life and career to combating trafficking in persons and helping trafficking victims, both foreign and Kazakhstani, before there were even laws on the books in Kazakhstan to provide them access to justice. Nigeria Marshall Islands Switzerland The narrative text of the introductory section evolved from providing minimal explanation of human trafficking and the purpose of the report, to covering a variety of human trafficking issues and current trends. The school principal was worried, so he asked her teacher, Mr. Baraka, to check with Mary’s family. While urgency has always marked the fight against human trafficking, the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic have magnified the need for all stakeholders to work together in the fight more than ever. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, Div. The OSCE is providing workshops and training to participating States on financial investigations into trafficking, using technology to combat trafficking, preventing trafficking in organizations’ supply chains, and identifying trafficking victims. The clinic recognizes that human trafficking can be both a physical and psychological trauma, and it seeks to reduce the risk of retraumatization by minimizing waiting times (especially in waiting rooms with strangers), having a single site of care across all specialists, and taking a single health history. Section 1 lists the countries identified as being in violation of the standards under the CSPA in 2019. When a victim perceives a threat to their physical and psychological survival at the hands of their trafficker, trauma bonding may occur. The rates can be found here:, Inside Front Cover: Sara Hylton Bethany Hanke Hoang In 2008, FIFA issued regulations on agents and required all to be licensed by a sports association. Trafficking in Persons and Corruption Report:, In 1994, the  Department of State began to monitor human trafficking as part of the Department’s Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, focusing exclusively on sex trafficking of women and girls. They are recognized for their tireless efforts—despite resistance, opposition, and threats to their lives—to protect victims, punish offenders, and educate stakeholders about human trafficking trends in their countries and abroad. Sonia Helmy-Dentzel She is highly regarded by her peers and those within the government as one of the leading human trafficking experts in the country. No reported allegations – NATO relies on contributing countries to report allegations. Ann Karl Slusarz After reasonable requests from the Department of State for data regarding such investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and sentences, a government which does not provide such data, consistent with a demonstrably increasing capacity of such government to obtain such data, shall be presumed not to have vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted, or sentenced such acts. CANADA: Tier 1. Between 2007 and 2019, troop- and police-contributing countries prosecuted and sentenced to prison 51 peacekeepers for sexual abuse and exploitation. NATO Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Action Plan to be adopted by October 2020., The Inter-agency Coordination Group against Trafficking in Persons (ICAT), Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially Women and Children (2006), Khartoum Declaration on AU-Horn of Africa Initiative on Human Trafficking and Smuggling of Migrants, ASEAN Declaration Against Trafficking in Persons, Particularly Women and Children (2004), ASEAN Senior Officials Meeting on Transnational Crime, Co Chairs’ Statements of the first (2002), second (2003), third (2009), fourth (2011), fifth (2013), sixth (2016) and seventh (2018), Bali Process Working Group on Trafficking in Persons, Agreement on the Cooperation of the CIS Member States in Combating Trafficking in Persons, Human Organs and Tissues (2005), COMMIT Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation Against Trafficking in Greater Mekong Sub-Region (2004), Special Representative and Coordinator for Trafficking in Human Beings, A Vision for the Baltic Sea region by 2020, CBSS Summit 2010, Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings (TF-THB), ECOWAS Initial Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons (2002-2003), extended until 2011, European Union Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, Arab Framework Act on Combating Trafficking in Persons (2008), Work Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons in the Western Hemisphere 2010-2012 (AG/RES. This report, and its valuable human trafficking statistics, is a crucial tool in fighting human trafficking around the globe. In addition, the report would be the first of its kind to rank countries publicly on their efforts to combat human trafficking, a crime newly denounced by the international community. The 2020 TIP Report covers government efforts undertaken from April 1, 2019 through March 31, 2020. Page 24: Sara Hylton The UN and other organizations carrying out peace operations, and troop- and police-contributing countries must reflect on peacekeepers’ positions of power and privilege relative to the host population and the myriad ways this dynamic contributes to sexual exploitation and abuse. This report was the first to feature a colorful front cover with the signature eyes and a letter from the Secretary of State, as well as compelling photos and images, victim stories, and a list of international “promising practices” in combating human trafficking. At the time, inclusion in the report depended on whether there was evidence of a “significant number” of victims in a given country, though the U.S. Congress did not specify what it considered to be a “significant number.” Once the drafters of the first report received reporting from all the U.S. embassies, which included information on the estimated number of victims in each country, they determined that 100 or more victims would be the threshold number, taking into account that for small countries this would be a high threshold but for large countries a low one. De Leo placed the audience in the indicators of human trafficking worldwide and how Peru is living this scourge, according to the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. The author has a range of expertise related to human trafficking, marginalized communities, substance use disorder, and trauma, including as a clinician. It required the small staff to create simultaneously both a methodology for the report and processes for gathering data, drafting narratives, and assessing government efforts. United States of America, Albania Page 35: picture alliance/Tone Koene The President further certified that the governments of the above countries are taking effective and continuing steps to address the problems of child soldiers. While much more needs to be done given the size of the problem, these faith-based efforts are nonetheless very promising. He coerced Ted by threatening his mother, drugging him, and physically abusing him. Kim fears her family will never escape their trafficker. 2370c-2(c) and (d)). Although diplomatic engagement on human trafficking occurs year-round, the process for drafting the TIP Report begins in the fall, when the Department of State’s TIP Office requests information from U.S. embassies regarding the profile of human trafficking in that country and efforts of the government to combat it. Some of the entities involved have raised awareness, made concrete commitments, established networks, or developed tools and guidance to help eradicate human trafficking, as well as assisted with the reintegration of survivors in their community. The data submitted for the report by governments and other actors reflect an enhanced understanding of human trafficking, a growing commitment to transparency, and an increasing willingness to work together in addressing a challenge that affects all countries. Indicia of “Serious and Sustained Efforts”, a)  domestic civil society organizations, private sector entities, or international nongovernmental organizations, or into multilateral or regional arrangements or agreements, to assist the government’s efforts to prevent trafficking, protect victims, and punish traffickers; or. Global AIDS Coordinator and Global Health Diplomacy, Special Presidential Envoy for Hostage Affairs, Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation, Special Representative for Syria Engagement, U.S. Security Coordinator for Israel and the Palestinian Authority, Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security, Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights, Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, Office of International Religious Freedom, Office of the Special Envoy To Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism, Office of the U.S. Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Under Secretary for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Office of the Science and Technology Adviser, Bureau of Information Resource Management, Bureau of the Comptroller and Global Financial Services, Office of Emergencies in the Diplomatic and Consular Service, Office of Management Strategy and Solutions, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs, Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, Remarks at the 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report Launch Ceremony, Release of the 20th Annual Trafficking in Persons Report, International Programs to Combat Trafficking in Persons, The Intersection of Human Trafficking and Addiction, The 3Ps: Prosecution, Protection, and Prevention. The Government of France fully meets the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Still, they illustrate the myriad schemes human traffickers use and the variety of situations in which trafficking victims are exploited. Taiwan The Trafficking in Persons Report by the US Department of State for 2020 has been released. Canada Elena was able to escape and is now receiving comprehensive services from a local NGO to work through the trauma of her experience and adjust to her new life. Namibia $7,233,000 Most often, sports agents approach poor or rural families with an offer to arrange for a child to train at a street-side academy, sports club, or school, with the promise of signing the child with a professional team. Some countries are attractive destinations for perpetrators who take advantage of weak rule of law, poverty, or the opportunity to engage in “voluntourism.” A relatively new form of extraterritorial commercial child sexual exploitation and abuse involves the use of livestreaming, chat, and payment platforms. Chaiszar Turner Austria To address these shortcomings, FIFA released a new set of regulations in 2015 that decentralized monitoring of agents, who previously had needed to pass an exam and register with a national governing body. Pages 18-19: Ranita Roy No tier ranking is permanent. Mongolia Australia When Kim was 12, she began working with her parents to help pay off the debt. $240,000 Therefore, in order for them to feel something, it must be intense. Page 547: Elisabetta Zavoli Liberia Philippines Adrienne Sgarlato This information is sent to analysts in the TIP Office who use it, in combination with other sources such as media reports, academic studies, in-country engagement, and information from the public, to inform the TIP Report tier rankings, country narratives, and recommendations. Once the contract is signed, the trafficker finally has the control needed to extort as much as possible from the athlete. This report arms governments with the data they need to increase the prosecution of traffickers, provide victim-centered and trauma-informed protection for victims of trafficking, and prevent this crime altogether. ],, UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons,, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights,–en/index.htm,, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (A/RES/55/25) (2000), United Nations Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons (ARES/64/293) (2010), Political Declaration on the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2017) (A/RES/72/1), UNSC Resolutions on Trafficking in Persons in Conflict Situations 2331 (2016) , 2388 (2017) and 2493 (2019 S/RES/2493), UNODC Countering Trafficking in Persons in Conflict Situations Thematic Paper (2018), UNODC Evidential Issues in Trafficking in Persons Cases: Case Digest, (Page 549 of this report includes a summary of actions taken by the UN to prevent human trafficking and sexual exploitation by international peacekeepers.). The principal became suspicious and asked Mary’s mother to come to the school for a parent-teacher meeting, during which she reported that Mary had returned home, but she did not know where Mary had been. Uniform Guidelines for the Identification and Referral of Victims of Human Trafficking within the Migrant and Refugee Reception Framework in the OSCE Region: 2018-2019 Report of the Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings: Regional Guidelines for Special Protection in Cases of the Repatriation of Child Victims of Trafficking (2007): Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Persons: Lessons from the SADC Region Booklet (2017): Some perpetrators may access children through relationships to families overseas, and others use the appearance of being in a position of trust to gain unsupervised access to children. Ambassador Elder emphasized the pervasive nature of forced child labor cases, which occur in all areas of the country, including border, rural, and urban areas, and are often purely domestic in nature. The TVPA requires the Secretary of State to submit an annual report to Congress that ranks governments’ efforts to combat trafficking in persons. Fiji $4,700,000 Countries whose governments do not fully meet the TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards, and for which: a) the estimated number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing and the country is not taking proportional concrete actions; b) there is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year, including increased investigations, prosecution, and convictions of trafficking crimes, increased assistance to victims, and decreasing evidence of complicity in severe forms of trafficking by government officials. Nicaragua Such a move could improve oversight of an industry that has resisted regulation despite being linked to crimes, including human trafficking. 333, to the extent that the CSPA would restrict such assistance or support; to waive the application of the prohibition in section 404(a) of the CSPA with respect to Somalia to allow for the provision of IMET and PKO assistance and DoD support provided pursuant to 10 U.S.C. She expanded partnerships and networks that have raised human trafficking awareness among Latvian and international audiences. Hope lies ahead. In Florida, the Trafficking Health care Resources and Interdisciplinary Victim Services and Education (THRIVE) Clinic at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine provides the resources of a world-class research hospital to trafficking survivors across the Southeast. 2551 (XL-O/10), Department of Public Security and Department against Transnational Organized Crime. Others reflect policy priorities and efforts to provide clarification and justification for the tier rankings and country narratives. In her role as advisor, she continues to provide critical support and guidance to HAART’s victims’ assistance program. Sharing Electronic Resources and Laws on Crime (SHERLOC): UN Sustainable Development Goal targets 5.2, 8.7, and 16.2 (SDGs):, -P029 Protocol of 2014 and Recommendation R203, supplementing the Forced Labour Convention (1930), -C105 Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (1957), -C182 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (1999), -C189 Domestic Workers Convention, and its Recommendation R201 (2011), UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, UN Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, UN Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography,, AU Commission Initiative against Trafficking Campaign (AU.COMMIT), (EU/Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative), Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process (2014), Valletta Summit Political Declaration (2015), EU-Africa Action Plan on Migration and Mobility (2014-2017), ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (ACTIP) and the ASEAN Plan of Action,, ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (2015), ASEAN Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (2015),, Declaration of the Seventh Ministerial Conference of the Bali Process on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime (2018). 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report Released Secretary of State Michael Pompeo on the occasion of the release of 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report: “For 20 years, the Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report) has demonstrated the United States’ conviction that human trafficking is a global threat necessitating a global response. The control in a trauma bond may help a person mentally make sense of the world, whereas escaping the trauma bond and trying to make independent decisions may feel overwhelming. Health care providers should be prepared to, Survivors come from all national, cultural, religious, and linguistic backgrounds. Central African Republic Enforcement of these regulations proved challenging. For over two decades, he has advanced Malawi’s anti-trafficking movement and is recognized nationally as a leading and trustworthy subject matter expert. Vietnam Cambodia When providers deny access to services due to a victim’s interaction with the perpetrator, it may result in re-victimization through engagement in high-risk survival activities. Although definitions vary, the most common meaning of trauma bonding is when a trafficker uses rewards and punishments within cycles of abuse to foster a powerful emotional connection with the victim. The original three-tier ranking system was created to indicate how well other governments complied with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking laid out in the law. Burkina Faso In cases where the agent does arrange for the children’s admittance and travel to a club or school, typically for a fee of thousands of dollars, the children often find themselves in situations that increase their vulnerability to predatory behaviors. Another provision amended the CSPA to provide that the restriction on military assistance applies to a government whose “police or other security forces” (in addition to “governmental armed forces” and “government-supported armed groups”) recruit or use child soldiers. Ericka Moten Honduras Section 3. Countries in the 2020 TIP Report that are not Party to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking In Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Palau Stabiņa led the development and implementation of two large international anti-trafficking projects. Often working at great personal expense and risk, the TIP Report Heroes are an incredible testament to the idea that the efforts of a single person can make all the difference in the individual lives of victims and the broader fight against human trafficking. The Secretary of State typically releases the TIP Report at a public event and welcomes members of the anti-trafficking stakeholder community, survivors of human trafficking, White House officials, and Members of Congress. Republic of the As we now launch this 20th anniversary report in the midst of the COVID-19 emergency, we are making it clear: neither terrorism nor financial crisis nor a pandemic will stop us from pursuing freedom for victims. Maria felt very lucky when she was recruited from her northern island in the Philippines to an eldercare position in Southern California. 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