si compound name

Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. An estimated 15% of the world production of metallurgical grade silicon is further refined to semiconductor purity. [97] Pure silicon is an intrinsic semiconductor, which means that unlike metals, it conducts electron holes and electrons released from atoms by heat; silicon's electrical conductivity increases with higher temperatures. [72], Silicon dioxide (SiO2), also known as silica, is one of the best-studied compounds, second only to water. Some silicon analogues of imines, with a Si=N double bond, are known: the first found was But2Si=N–SiBut3, which was discovered in 1986. Large fluxes of groundwater input have an isotopic composition which is distinct from riverine silicon inputs. [35][47][48] This is due to silicon being the dominant material of the Silicon Age (also known as the Digital Age or Information Age), similar to how the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age were defined by the dominant materials during their respective ages of civilization. Silane itself, as well as trichlorosilane, were first synthesised by Friedrich Wöhler and Heinrich Buff in 1857 by reacting aluminium–silicon alloys with hydrochloric acid, and characterised as SiH4 and SiHCl3 by Charles Friedel and Albert Ladenburg in 1867. [87], Silicon of 96–99% purity is made by reducing quartzite or sand with highly pure coke. Another process used is the reduction of sodium hexafluorosilicate, a common waste product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, by metallic sodium: this is highly exothermic and hence requires no outside fuel source. They are fairly unreactive, but do react with concentrated solutions bearing the hydroxide ion and fluorinating agents, and occasionally, may even be used as mild reagents for selective syntheses. Thus, the vast majority of uses for silicon are as structural compounds, either as the silicate minerals or silica (crude silicon dioxide). Nitrogen monoxide (NO) will be a covalently bound molecule (two non-metals), silicon dioxide (SiO 2) will be a covalently bound molecule (a semi-metal and a non-metal) and MgCl 2 will be ionic (a metal and a non-metal). 3-pentanol is heated with sulphuric acid (H2SO4) to become compound M. Compound M is reacted with Br2/ H2O to form Compound N. Outline the reaction step and name the compound M and N . The pre-transition metal silicides instead readily react with water and aqueous acids, usually producing hydrogen or silanes:[64], Products often vary with the stoichiometry of the silicide reactant. “Detection of Nitroaromatics in the Solid, Solution, and Vapor Phases Using Silicon Quantum Dot Sensors.” Nanotechnology 27, no. These compounds are volatile and hence can be purified by repeated fractional distillation, followed by reduction to elemental silicon with very pure zinc metal as the reducing agent. For other uses, other types of pure silicon may be employed. Instead, most form eutectic mixtures, although the heaviest post-transition metals mercury, thallium, lead, and bismuth are completely immiscible with liquid silicon. [70] Additionally, the reactive hypervalent species SiH−5 is also known. The lattice of oxygen atoms that results is usually close-packed, or close to it, with the charge being balanced by other cations in various different polyhedral sites according to size. 223–227. While catenation in carbon compounds is maximised in the hydrogen compounds rather than the halides, the opposite is true for silicon, so that the halopolysilanes are known up to at least Si14F30, Si6Cl14, and Si4Br10. Inorganic Chemistry, Holleman-Wiberg, John Wiley & Sons (2001) p. 844. While pure silanes do not react with pure water or dilute acids, traces of alkali catalyse immediate hydrolysis to hydrated silicon dioxide. Among the elements, it is attacked only by fluorine at room temperature to form silicon tetrafluoride: hydrogen and carbon also react, but require temperatures over 1000 °C to do so. [87] Aeolian inputs of particulate lithogenic silicon into the North Atlantic and Western North Pacific oceans are the result of dust settling on the oceans from the Sahara and Gobi Desert, respectively. Thus they can be viewed as layers stacked in a certain sequence. In compounds of silicon (where known), the most common oxidation numbers of silicon are: 4, and -4. ", Academic Press (1993), p. 219. For example, N(SiH3)3 does not form an adduct with BH3 at all, while MeN(SiH3)2 and Me2NSiH3 form adducts at low temperatures that decompose upon warming. Bible Sirach n. Music Ti. Compound Name. SI is the modern form of the metric system, which contains e.g. Similar melting and cooling of silica occurs following lightning strikes, forming glassy lechatelierite. Dissolving the crude aluminum in hydrochloric acid revealed flakes of crystallized silicon. In more advanced plants, the silica phytoliths (opal phytoliths) are rigid microscopic bodies occurring in the cell; some plants, for example rice, need silicon for their growth. In addition, specialty silica based glass fibers are used for optical fiber, as well as to produce fiberglass for structural support and glass wool for thermal insulation. The relatively small portion of very highly purified elemental silicon used in semiconductor electronics (< 10%) is essential to the metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) transistors and integrated circuit chips used in most modern technology (such as computers and cell phones, for example). Because of its high chemical affinity for oxygen, it was not until 1823 that Jöns Jakob Berzelius was first able to prepare it and characterize it in pure form. Reacting hydrogen sulfide with silicon tetrahalides yields silicon thiohalides such as S(SiCl)3, cyclic Cl2Si(μ-S)2SiCl2, and crystalline (SiSCl2)4. As a general rule, while saturated carbon is best attacked by nucleophiles that are neutral compounds, those based on nonmetals far down on the periodic table (e.g. Marine snow involves the downward transfer of particulate organic matter by vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter. A compound is a pure substance that can be decomposed into simpler substances because it is made up of 2 or more elements. [94], Silicon quantum dots are created through the thermal processing of hydrogen silsesquioxane into nanocrystals ranging from a few nanometers to a few microns, displaying size dependent luminescent properties. The smallest unbreakable unit of a compound is called a molecule . They are also used in whiteware ceramics such as porcelain, and in traditional silicate-based soda-lime glass and many other specialty glasses. Free silicon is also used in the steel refining, aluminium-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica). Si2Br6. 0 1 2. Silicon reacts with gaseous sulfur at 600 °C and gaseous phosphorus at 1000 °C. Other routes use the thermal decomposition of silane or tetraiodosilane (SiI4). It is relatively unreactive. [30] In 1955, Carl Frosch and Lincoln Derick at Bell Labs accidentally discovered that silicon dioxide (SiO2) could be grown on silicon,[31] and they later proposed this could mask silicon surfaces during diffusion processes in 1958. It is very hard. [91] Silly Putty was originally made by adding boric acid to silicone oil. Find Similar Structures. For example, tetraphenylsilane (SiPh4) may be distilled in air even at its boiling point of 428 °C, and so may its substituted derivatives Ph3SiCl and Ph2SiCl2, which boil at 378 °C and 305 °C respectively. [55] All the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than seven seconds, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than one tenth of a second. In order to name this compound, we firstly have to derive its chemical formula. Germanium was initially considered the more effective semiconductor material, as it was able to demonstrate better performance due to higher carrier mobility. 31Si may be produced by the neutron activation of natural silicon and is thus useful for quantitative analysis; it can be easily detected by its characteristic beta decay to stable 31P, in which the emitted electron carries up to 1.48 MeV of energy. Compound prefixes are not used, and there is never a space between a prefix symbol and the SI symbol or the prefix and the SI name (e.g., use mm and millimeter, not m m or milli meter). ", "Electro chemical researches, on the decomposition of the earths; with observations on the metals obtained from the alkaline earths, and on the amalgam procured from ammonia,", "Undersökning af flusspatssyran och dess märkvärdigaste föreningar", "Zersetzung der flussspaths. [26], The silanes comprise a homologous series of silicon hydrides with a general formula of SinH2n + 2. Hessel, Colin M., Eric J. Henderson, and Jonathan G. C. Veinot. English. Silicon (IV) Dioxide. [57] Ferrosilicon, an iron-silicon alloy that contains varying ratios of elemental silicon and iron, accounts for about 80% of the world's production of elemental silicon, with China, the leading supplier of elemental silicon, providing 4.6 million tonnes (or 2/3 of world output) of silicon, most of it in the form of ferrosilicon. SI Unit Conversion Calculator. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. The role of journalism in creating the metaphor of Silicon Valley. [21][22] By electrolyzing a mixture of sodium chloride and aluminium chloride containing approximately 10% silicon, he was able to obtain a slightly impure allotrope of silicon in 1854. At 450 °C, silane participates in an addition reaction with acetone, as well as a ring-opening reaction with ethylene oxide. [83], Silicones may be considered analogous to mineral silicates, in which the methyl groups of the silicones correspond to the isoelectronic O− of the silicates. These include hydrogenated amorphous silicon and upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon (UMG-Si) used in the production of low-cost, large-area electronics in applications such as liquid crystal displays and of large-area, low-cost, thin-film solar cells. However, various sea sponges and microorganisms, such as diatoms and radiolaria, secrete skeletal structures made of silica. Silicate minerals are also in whiteware ceramics, an important class of products usually containing various types of fired clay minerals (natural aluminium phyllosilicates). Opals are composed of complicated crystalline aggregates of partially hydrated silicon dioxide. [36] This prevented electricity from reliably penetrating the surface to reach the semiconducting silicon layer. In the open ocean, however, diatoms have a reduced role in global annual silica production. [72] Silicon tetrafluoride also may be made by fluorinating the other silicon halides, and is produced by the attack of hydrofluoric acid on glass. Zeolites have many polyhedral cavities in their frameworks (truncated cuboctahedra being most common, but other polyhedra also are known as zeolite cavities), allowing them to include loosely bound molecules such as water in their structure. [19][20] The same year, Berzelius became the first to prepare silicon tetrachloride; silicon tetrafluoride had already been prepared long before in 1771 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele by dissolving silica in hydrofluoric acid. [68][69] As expected from the difference in atomic weight, the silanes are less volatile than the corresponding alkanes and boranes, but more so than the corresponding germanes. [64] Silicides are known for all stable elements in groups 1–10, with the exception of beryllium: in particular, uranium and the transition metals of groups 4–10 show the widest range of stoichiometries. For example, the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals react with silicon or silicon oxide to give silicides. This melts at 1090 °C and sublimes at 1250 °C; at high temperature and pressure this transforms to a crystal structure analogous to cristobalite. It is also useful as an intrinsic semiconductor, as well as an extrinsic semiconductor upon being doped. [57], Most silicon is used industrially without being purified, and indeed, often with comparatively little processing from its natural form. Common compound names. [41][42] This was the first demonstration to show that high-quality silicon dioxide insulator films could be grown thermally on the silicon surface to protect the underlying silicon p-n junction diodes and transistors. It is most widely distributed in space in cosmic dusts, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. The polyatomic ion name stays the same. [13], Starting in the 1920s, the work of William Lawrence Bragg on X-ray crystallography successfully elucidated the compositions of the silicates, which had previously been known from analytical chemistry but had not yet been understood, together with Linus Pauling's development of crystal chemistry and Victor Goldschmidt's development of geochemistry. In the laboratory, preparation is often carried out in small quantities by reacting tetrachlorosilane (silicon tetrachloride) with organolithium, Grignard, or organoaluminium reagents, or by catalytic addition of Si–H across C=C double bonds. Following periodic trends, its single-bond covalent radius of 117.6 pm is intermediate between those of carbon (77.2 pm) and germanium (122.3 pm). The late 20th century to early 21st century has been described as the Silicon Age (also known as the Digital Age or Information Age) due to elemental silicon having a large impact on the modern world economy. As a result, the chemistry of silicon and its heavier congeners shows significant differences from that of carbon,[60] and thus octahedral coordination is also significant. A transistor is an n-p-n junction, with a thin layer of weakly p-type silicon between two n-type regions. More... Molecular Weight. Such control is necessary for transistors, solar cells, semiconductor detectors, and other semiconductor devices used in the computer industry and other technical applications. [24][25] Meanwhile, research on the chemistry of silicon continued; Friedrich Wöhler discovered the first volatile hydrides of silicon, synthesising trichlorosilane in 1857 and silane itself in 1858, but a detailed investigation of the silanes was only carried out in the early 20th century by Alfred Stock, despite early speculation on the matter dating as far back as the beginnings of synthetic organic chemistry in the 1830s. However, it slowly dissolves in hot concentrated alkalis, and does so rather quickly in fused metal hydroxides or carbonates, to give metal silicates. The International System of Units (SI Units) is provided by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). [75], Chain metasilicates, {SiO2−3}∞, form by corner-sharing of an indefinite chain of linked {SiO4} tetrahedra. If the concentration of the desired chemical increases then the photocurrent given off by the nanocrystals will change in response. Silica boils at approximately 2800 °C. For example, enolates react at the carbon in haloalkanes, but at the oxygen in silyl chlorides; and when trimethylsilyl is removed from an organic molecule using hydroxide as a nucleophile, the product of the reaction is not the silanol as one would expect from using carbon chemistry as an analogy, because the siloxide is strongly nucleophilic and attacks the original molecule to yield the silyl ether hexamethyldisiloxane, (Me3Si)2O. It is a white, high-melting-point solid that is relatively chemically inert, being attacked by dilute HF and hot H 2SO 4. [64], Usually, silicides are prepared by direct reaction of the elements. Traditional glass (silica-based soda-lime glass) also functions in many of the same ways, and also is used for windows and containers. 10 (June 2007). For example, nucleophilic attack on silicon does not proceed by the SN2 or SN1 processes, but instead goes through a negatively charged true pentacoordinate intermediate and appears like a substitution at a hindered tertiary atom. [54])), Silicon crystallises in a giant covalent structure at standard conditions, specifically in a diamond cubic lattice. They are all strong reducing agents. S2. [40] Atalla first published his findings in Bell memos during 1957, and then demonstrated it in 1958. Compounds are chemical substances made up of two or more elements that are chemically bound together in a fixed ratio. abbr. Name: Silicon Symbol: Si Atomic Number: 14 Atomic Mass: 28.0855 amu Melting Point: 1410.0 °C (1683.15 K, 2570.0 °F) Boiling Point: 2355.0 °C (2628.15 K, 4271.0 °F) Disilane (Si2H6) followed in 1902, when it was first made by Henri Moissan and Samuel Smiles by the protonolysis of magnesium silicides. At 537 °C, this transforms quickly and reversibly into the similar β-quartz, with a change of the Si–O–Si angle to 155° but a retention of handedness. However, the 3p subshell is rather more diffuse than the 2p subshell and does not hybridise so well with the 3s subshell. The first two, silane and disilane, are colourless gases; the heavier members of the series are volatile liquids. [109], Although silicon is readily available in the form of silicates, very few organisms use it directly. Elemental silicon is added to molten cast iron as ferrosilicon or silicocalcium alloys to improve performance in casting thin sections and to prevent the formation of cementite where exposed to outside air. 23550-45-0. This section lists some binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and some other compounds of silicon. About 55% of the world consumption of metallurgical purity silicon goes for production of aluminium-silicon alloys (silumin alloys) for aluminium part casts, mainly for use in the automotive industry. Examples include feldspars (the most abundant minerals on the Earth), zeolites, and ultramarines. Following is an example that looks up an LDAP entry by using a compound name. [13] Silicon tends to resemble germanium far more than it does carbon, and this resemblance is enhanced by the d-block contraction, resulting in the size of the germanium atom being much closer to that of the silicon atom than periodic trends would predict. Glass containing silica was manufactured by the Egyptians since at least 1500 BC, as well as by the ancient Phoenicians. [88] Ferrosilicon is primarily used by the iron and steel industry (see below) with primary use as alloying addition in iron or steel and for de-oxidation of steel in integrated steel plants. This arises because silicon has a small energy gap (band gap) between its highest occupied energy levels (the valence band) and the lowest unoccupied ones (the conduction band). Choose the term that describes the type of sentence shown. For example, the alkali metal silicides (M+)4(Si4−4) contain pyramidal tricoordinate silicon in the Si4−4 anion, isoelectronic with white phosphorus, P4. WebElements: THE periodic table on the WWW [www.webelements.com] [55] The most common decay mode for the heavier unstable isotopes is beta decay, primarily forming phosphorus isotopes (15 protons) as decay products. [83], Because the Si–C bond is close in strength to the C–C bond, organosilicon compounds tend to be markedly thermally and chemically stable. Twelve different crystal modifications of silica are known, the most common being α-quartz, a major constituent of many rocks such as granite and sandstone. Based upon that oxidation number, an electronic configuration is also given but note that for more exotic compounds you should view this as a guide only. Lim, Cheol Hong, Jeong-Hee Han, Hae-Won Cho, and Mingu Kang. [57] Another reaction, sometimes used, is aluminothermal reduction of silicon dioxide, as follows:[89], Leaching powdered 96–97% pure silicon with water results in ~98.5% pure silicon, which is used in the chemical industry. Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen. [35] The MOSFET has since become the most widely manufactured device in history, with an estimated total of 13 sextillion MOSFETs having been manufactured between 1960 and 2018. The most widely used silicon device is the MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor), which has been manufactured in larger numbers than any other device in history. Gonzalez, Christina M., and Jonathan G. C. Veinot. Also significant are the garnets, [MII3MIII2(SiO4)3], in which the divalent cations (e.g. Such use includes industrial construction with clays, silica sand, and stone. [24][25], Naturally occurring silicon is composed of three stable isotopes, 28Si (92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.10%). An example is kaolinite [Al2(OH)4Si2O5]; in many of these minerals cation and anion replacement is common, so that for example tetrahedral SiIV may be replaced by AlIII, octahedral AlIII by MgII, and OH− by F−. disulfur. Three-dimensional framework aluminosilicates are structurally very complex; they may be conceived of as starting from the SiO2 structure, but having replaced up to one-half of the SiIV atoms with AlIII, they require more cations to be included in the structure to balance charge. [55] The most common decay mode of the isotopes with mass numbers lower than the three stable isotopes is inverse beta decay, primarily forming aluminium isotopes (13 protons) as decay products. The MOSFET was the first mass-produced silicon transistor, and is credited with starting the silicon revolution. A binary molecular compound is named so that its subscript numbers are indicated as Greek prefixes in its name. The heats of formation of the silicides are usually similar to those of the borides and carbides of the same elements, but they usually melt at lower temperatures. Increasing water concentration results in the formation of hydrated silica gels and colloidal silica dispersions. Currently, there are substantial differences in the isotopic values of deep water in the world's ocean basins. [26] With suitable organic substituents it is possible to produce stable polysilanes: they have surprisingly high electric conductivities, arising from sigma delocalisation of the electrons in the chain. [71], Silicon and silicon carbide readily react with all four stable halogens, forming the colourless, reactive, and volatile silicon tetrahalides. [57] All three are produced in stars through the oxygen-burning process, with 28Si being made as part of the alpha process and hence the most abundant. [128] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit for silicon exposure in the workplace as 15 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday. [72] Silicon tetrachloride is manufactured on a huge scale as a precursor to the production of pure silicon, silicon dioxide, and some silicon esters. [53], At standard temperature and pressure, silicon is a shiny semiconductor with a bluish-grey metallic lustre; as typical for semiconductors, its resistivity drops as temperature rises. [17] In 1823, Jöns Jacob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon using approximately the same method as Gay-Lussac (reducing potassium fluorosilicate with molten potassium metal), but purifying the product to a brown powder by repeatedly washing it. 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