monolithic dome forms

After a series of failed high-profile efforts, the company is currently trying to siphon off oil using a containment cap system and drilling relief wells aimed at stopping the flow by August. This means that the footings and the floor are all poured in one shot. He starts from ground level and slowly builds the layers of the walls, then adds a load of concrete to create the domes. A monolithic foundation is only 12 inches deep. A form of concrete called shotcrete is sprayed onto the rebar and polyurethane, this forms the structural element of the dome. This unique hotel is built and rebuilt every winter using ice, snow, and a lot of creativity. You will not receive your subscription until you click that link to activate it. 250 foot long, 60 foot wide at the widest point and 24 foot high…This is where we assemble the air forms that we use for making the domes,” he said. They can also be built at a lower cost than conventional structures. Purchase A Monolithic Dome for Homes, Schools, and Churches Broadwell Air Domes designs the air forms used to build a monolithic dome structure that can be used as a house, school, church, etc. A monolithic dome is a structure cast in a one-piece form. Today, I can’t see the mountains at all. To use DomeGaia’s example, a 1,000-square-foot dome four inches thick costs about $4,000 in Aircrete. Derek Markham is a green living expert who started writing for Treehugger in 2012. The Airform is a highly engineered fabric structure that should be handled with great care. Purchase A Monolithic Dome for Homes, Schools, and Churches Broadwell Air Domes designs the air forms used to build a monolithic dome structure that can be used as a house, school, church, etc. Io-20, built on your lot - complete - $64,900 To sign up for Equip International's next Concrete Dome Construction course, visit https://bit.ly/2jQRNic! South, president of Monolithic. The second is called a Geodesic dome, which consist of triangular shaped panels to help create the structures integrity. Monolithic Dome Gypsum Storage. DIY Dome Homes Built From Aircrete Are an Affordable & Ecofriendly Option By. 177 Dome Park Place What You Need to Know about a Monolithic Dome Home—Before You Buy One! We wonder what Bilbo, Tolkien’s hero hobbit, would have thought about the earth-bermed, 1400-square-foot, Monolithic Dome home, completed in October 2004, in Flag Pond, Tennessee. Normally, at an occasion such as this, the kids would be running around competing in the three-legged race and bean-bag toss, and the adults would be relaxing under the big shade trees, but not this year. Monolithic does not often have surplus Airform that could be used to construct a Monolithic Dome or EcoShell. With a sculptural dome you create a metal skin using rebar, road mesh, and metal lathe that become the form. This list will continually be updated, as it is just a small sampling of the many Monolithic Dome homes families enjoy every day. For example a 3.0m diameter air-form will have a vertical section below the hemisphere of either 900mm or 1200mm depending on the desired height. In addition to real estate listings and coverage by local news websites, national news outlets like HouseBeautiful.com and Today.com have published stories about this unusual house. As I look out my home-office window I can usually see the Wellsville mountain range. Visitors to Glenn Young’s Monolithic Dome home often have a problem finding his front door. See more ideas about dome, church, chapel. Poly urethane foam is then added to the inside of the form. They are used for homes, shelters and commercial buildings, and are therefore the perfect option for rebuilding in the US where conventional homes and structures have been destroyed. For your dream dome-home, our library includes floor plans in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. email@monolithic.com, Monolithic Preliminary Concept Evaluation Form. We received a call from a homeowner in Forreston, Texas. Operations Manager Bob Marlow, who has a 30-year employment history with The Andersons, oversees the company's facility in Delphi, Indiana. Blistering on a Monolithic Dome is usually minimal because of the materials used. A typical installation uses 6-inch by 6-inch woven wire mesh, which is supported on rebar chairs so it is positioned near the center of the finished slab. The town was having a huge celebration complete with a flag-raising, sunrise breakfast, booths, games, parade, fireworks and a dance. Its charter dates back to 1762, its name exalts Charlotte Sophia, the wife of King George III, and most of its residents live in very traditional, wood frame, New England homes. For a look at a similar Air-Crete dome,please see: Any and all of these needs can be filled with Monolithic Construction Technology. A dome can beat a conventional building in almost every head-to-head comparison in … In addition to real estate listings and coverage by local news websites, national news outlets like HouseBeautiful.com and Today.com have published stories about this unusual house. Storages are the most popular use of the Monolithic Dome. But when we do, it’s wise to see if one is available in a size that might work for you. What a bargain! Highly durable and tight, these structures account for some exciting pieces of dwelling with some extravagant looking interiors. Monolithic Floor Plans. Unfortunately, these bridges have not withstood the test of time. See more ideas about Dome house, Dome home, Dome. The most likely time to damage the Airform is while transporting it to the job site; spreading it; attaching it; and inflating it. The Monolithic Dome naturally addresses these problems. Shell construction is almost complete for a large gypsum storage east of Las Vegas, Nevada. More than 1,600 Binishells System domes have been built in 23 countries. Monolithic domes are not the most eco friendly, mine will require about 100 yds of concrete and several thousand feet of rebar, however if all goes well it should still be standing in 1000 years. Monolithic dome is a rounded building structure typically made of concrete and rigid steel rods. “The domes are constructed following a method that requires an inflatable Airform, steel-reinforced concrete, and polyurethane foam insulation. Industrial buildings: Monolithic dome structures are used the world over to store industrial materials like sand, salt, lime, and more. Complex Monolithic Dome designs push Airform technology to the limit. More than 1,600 Binishells System domes have been built in … That size-range includes small, cozy cottages, as well as spacious and spectacular castle-like domains and everything in between. This may be necessary because of dirt accumulated during shipping or construction, or from our not-so-clean environment. Vertical steel bars embedded in the ring later attached to the steel reinforcing of the dome itself. That size-range includes small, cozy cottages, as well as spacious and spectacular castle-like domains and everything in between. In September 2013, after transforming 1.93 acres of scrub brush, grass and trees into an elegant paradise, the Whiteacres realized their dream and moved into their gorgeous new Monolithic Dome home in College Station, Texas. Italy, Texas 76651 On many commercial monolithic concrete dome projects, a stem wall is constructed using concrete masonry units (CMUs), bricks, concrete or Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs); then the air form is attached to the top of the stem wall and inflated. Lloyd was one of the original pioneers of air form construction. How deep . Monolithic Domes• A monolithic dome (from Greek mono- and - lithic, meaning "one stone") is a structure cast in a one-piece form. email@monolithic.com, Monolithic’s Condensate Ceilings: Effective, Practical, Durable, Monolithic’s Pond Liners: A Quality Product, Surplus Airform- Ecoshell: 20′ × 10.5′-28 oz. Insulated Reinforced Concrete Domes, sometimes referred to as "concrete shells", "thin shell concrete domes" or "monolithic domes" are known for their rapid construction (usually a matter of a few weeks depending on the size), economics for a cost-effective free-span structure, energy efficiency from thick insulation and thermal mass of the interior concrete and near absolute protection from both manmade … See more ideas about monolithic dome homes, dome house, dome. Air Form Cost Table. monolithic forms | Posted in Construction Techniques on June 4, 2005 05:08am what is the best way to build monolithic form boards to include brick footing. In a test of the system, a concrete dome measuring 2.9 meters (9.5 ft) in height was built in approximately two hours. TBT: Design inspiration in a frozen hotel, Tour a remarkable underground Monolithic Dome home for sale in North Texas, Dome construction is nearly complete for Las Vegas gypsum storage, How our Monolithic Dome home keeps out smoke from rampant California wildfires. We will respond as quickly as possible. When designing your dome for residential or commercial use, it’s worth thinking through multiple construction possibilities early in your planning. 1. These domes are created by inflating a fabric air form attached to a concrete foundation. Spray polyurethane foam onto the interior of the membrane. The Monolithic Dome naturally addresses these problems. Types of dome - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. Their system is okay, but requires more expensive balloon forms. That’s because Glenn and John St. Pé, co-owners of Dome Contractors, Inc., built Glenn’s Monolithic Dome home completely underground. It’s new! The upside of the MD forms is that they that are durable and weather resistant. All air-forms include an external flap system for attaching and sealing to an air-lock. Is there an alternative to concrete or steel water tanks? A Monolithic Bridge is just such a solution. The layers of airform, foam, steel, and concrete form a one-piece — monolithic — thin-shell concrete dome. Thank you for accepting our invitation to receive our free, no obligation “Quick-Start Guide to Monolithic Dome Homes.”. 4. Matthew and Jari Whiteacre dreamed about building a Monolithic Dome Home for a long time before their dreams became plans. There are tiny shops and storage domes to huge — over 300-feet (91.5 m) diameter — structures storing more than 44,000 tons (40,000 t) of bulk material. Domes are prominent features of Persian, Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, and Italian Renaissance design. You are almost done signing up for the “Quick-Start Guide to Monolithic Dome Homes.” Please check your email and confirm your subscription. In addition to long-range savings, our very green Monolithic Domes provide energy-efficiency, disaster protection and more. This completely hidden Monolithic Dome home is totally unique, absolutely private, and currently up for sale. Shaded by more than 80 live oaks, the dome sits on five wooded acres among gently rolling hills, seven miles northwest of Bandera, Texas. Many people want to do something – like build a dome – their way and hopefully improve on current technology. The new dome replaces a 50-year-old steel dome. 972-483-7423 This unique hotel is built and rebuilt every winter using ice, snow, and a lot of creativity. We are sad to announce the passing of David Barney South Sr. — husband, father, entrepreneur, and inventor. “Welcome to Bruco. While it is constructed of blocks of compressed snow , these blocks melt and re-freeze to form a strong, homogeneous structure. It’s home to the first Monolithic Dome fertilizer storage project — built more than 40 years ago in 1978. But while sizes and shapes may vary, the benefits of a Monolithic Dome home remain constant. Many factors enter into its attachment to the concrete foundation. A layer of polyurethane foam is then sprayed onto the interior of Continue Reading From inside, you’re admiring the eye-catching, organic shape of the inflated Airform and the ethereal translucence as the sunlight filters through fabric, when a contractor derails your train of thought. Click here to see other Airform products. A monolithic structure is a structure that is carved or cast from one piece to form a homogeneous structure. Derek Markham. monolithic formwork are accessible with a broader sphere of product lines and are perfect for making any type of plastic goods you want. And it goes without saying that they give you a lot more design flexibility. He co-invented the Monolithic Dome with his brothers, and they built a new construction industry. The earliest forms of monolithic … If a fire attacked the outside of a Monolithic Dome, it might damage the Airform and even melt the foam, but the concrete would survive, and the fire would not burn through. Small domes may use an integrated floor/ring foundation. About design procedures for monolithic construction: Hundreds of Monolithic Dome homes have been built all over the world as beach houses, rental units, multi-story homes, mountain cabins, tiny houses, multi-generational housing, and even underground homes. Because of its expense, extreme care should be taken not to damage it. The igloo may be the earliest form of monolithic dome. We have extensive files on structures built across all industries plus we have access to industry experts and professionals. But with an estimated 60,000 barrels a day still gushing out of the well, the search is on for better solutions. This caterpillar structure actually holds a large role within the company. David was married to the late Judy Lynne South (née Bates), and they raised nine children together. Historically, most bridges have been the domain of the standard, rectangular, steel or wooden form of construction. Today’s Throwback Thursday is the Lincoln County Farm Center on US Route 66 in Chandler, Oklahoma. You do not receive any designs or plans with this procedure. A Delightful New Product: The Monolithic Gazebo, Considerations for Arched Window Bucks in Airform Augments, Measuring Seam Strength in a Monolithic Airform, Blistering – Taking Care of a Common Problem, Inflating an Airform and Regulating Air Pressure, Monolithic Methane Digester Cover Helps Recycle Waste Into Energy. The best way to deal with these problems is to be prepared for them. That size-range includes small, cozy cottages, as well as spacious and spectacular castle-like domains and everything in between. This technique forms the concrete with the help of an air bladder that is deflated when the final form of the building is reached. Consider the Monolithic Fabric Water Tank. This technique forms the concrete with the help of an air bladder that is deflated when the final form of the building is reached. The smaller the dome the higher the vertical section of the mold. At Bruco, Monolithic also designs and manufactures other specialty fabric structures, such as compost covers, grain covers, condensate ceilings, methane tank liners, water tank diaphragms and tension tarps. The building process of monolithic domes entailed:- 1. Today, I can’t see the mountains at all. "Companies that designed huge water tanks with offices or equipment sheds built under the tanks were our customers. Italy, Texas 76651 Almost all of the Airform Membranes we sell are custom. As my wife and I prepare for future exterior work on our Monolithic Dome, and to keep up with recommended Airform maintenance, it’s finally time to wash our Airform again. Wonderful starter or retirement dome home, built on your land, in Dallas, Tarrant and surrounding counties ... Frank Lloyd Wright continued the “form follows function” mantra, as did many others in different fields.all of them. The first dome built using these method was constructed in Shelley, Idaho: The largest monolithic dome in the world is the home of Faith Chapel Christian Center in Birmingham, AL. Special clips are affixed to the foam interior, and rebar is installed. A Monolithic Dome provides fire protection as well. *Any size dome can be built with the same set of molds, from cozy single family homes to large fellowship halls, by simply elongating the racetrack footprint. Forms have been made using nearly every common structural material including air pressure supported fabric. The term monolithic stems from “monolith,” which means a large piece of stone used to erect a structure or monument. Advantages of monolithic domes: Monolithic domes are both efficient and incredibly strong structures; they take hurricane force winds and earthquakes in their stride. The positive air pressure keeps the fabric membrane up as polyurethane foam is applied. Geodesic dome home prices shake out much the same way–it depends on what you have in mind. The Monolithic Dome Institute offers a free service to organizations seeking a Monolithic Dome for a school, church, safe room, sports facility, or storage. In 1999, Kim and Robert Reynolds designed and built a Monolithic Dome dream-home, a 5/8th sphere with a diameter of 50 feet, a height of nearly 29 feet, two stories and 3500 square feet of living space. Every building built by Monolithic … Feb 16, 2013 - Explore Susan Herbst's board "dome homes", followed by 139 people on Pinterest. The problem is that the their/new way is usually an old way long ago discarded. Monolithic® Bridge technology represents an innovative solution that allows bridge construction to be stronger, longer lasting and more affordable. This new approach to monolithic dome building is not only stronger but offers individual home builders the ability to customize the designs and features of their home. They are cost-efficient, earth-friendly, extremely durable and easily maintained. . It’s a beautiful, living view that changes nearly every day with summer heat, fall colors, winter snow, and spring blossoms. The building process of monolithic … Pabco Gypsum is a vertically integrated mining and manufacturing facility that produces 110 million square meters of drywall per year. Pabco Gypsum is a vertically integrated mining and manufacturing facility that produces 110 million square meters of drywall per year. For your dream dome-home, our library includes floor plans in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. It’s made of PVC-coated nylon or polyester fabric, available in several weights and a rainbow of colors. How-to articles about Monolithic Airforms. “We’ve had people come out who didn’t know there was a house there and actually parked on top of it,” Glenn said. In addition, our staff includes professionals with experience and expertise that can help you design the exact floor plan you want and need. She wanted us to examine the creek bank in front of her house. Here’s a must-have, must-read ebook with down-to-earth information on just about anything and everything that has to do with designing and building your dream home. The creek had seriously started to erode and her house was seriously getting closer to the creek. But while sizes and shapes may vary, the benefits of a Monolithic Dome home remain constant. What You Need to Know about a Monolithic Dome Home—Before You Buy One! Each time the sun gets hot on that same spot, it increases the size of the blister as the vapors expand. It’s a beautiful, living view that changes nearly every day with summer heat, fall colors, winter snow, and spring blossoms. It’s a safe school. Monolithic domes meet FEMA standards for providing near-absolute protection and have a proven ability to survive tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, most manmade disasters, fire, termites and rot. But it’s not a safe room. This article reviews a few of the things you can do to fix such problems. Monolithic’s construction process demands an Airform. Airforms are very strong and function well, but in some cases, aesthetics present a problem. This completely hidden Monolithic Dome home is totally unique, absolutely private, and currently up for sale. Click here to read more about Bridges, Culverts and Tunnels built using the Monolithic Airform construction method. Or, how do you keep contaminants such as oil, industrial chemicals, even arsenic from seeping into the water? The DIY dome is a low-profile sphere with natural air flow. In addition, our staff includes professionals with experience and expertise that can help you design the exact floor plan you want and need. The durability and low-maintenance nature of dome structures protect the materials housed within with little need for upkeep. And that’s just the standard dome. Plant Manager Donald Garrison puts Airform fabric to the test before any fabric is used to create a Monolithic Airform. On the other hand, you could build a small monolithic dome house as a permanent shelter for under $10,000 if you do it yourself. Otherwise, the floor is … It seizes the record at 72 feet (22 m) tall, and 280 feet (85 m) in diameter. But while sizes and shapes may vary, the benefits of a Monolithic Dome home remain constant. Chile has a large one with a 90.2’ diameter. Emmett High School: First Monolithic Dome School Ten Years Later. It’s made of PVC-coated nylon or polyester fabric, available in several weights and a rainbow of colors. Mar 13, 2018 - Explore Peter Freund's board "monolithic dome homes", followed by 129 people on Pinterest. The Andersons, Inc., a diversified agribusiness with grain elevators in Ohio, Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, has been a Monolithic client for both domes and grain covers for more than a decade. Best way to deal with these problems is to be used anywhere in the us is to. Which consist of an air form attached to the EcoShell except that they that durable! Nine children together concrete revetment it was 100 degrees outside on July 4th, in. Code authorities often specify the type and placement of the membrane 64,900 domes are following! The whole valley before me is covered in smoke structures ever made may not part! That can help you design the exact floor plan you want our response to our customers lower than... For $ 600,000 any type of plastic goods you want and need of creativity to our! They raised nine children together special clips are affixed to monolithic dome forms late Lynne... Totally unique, absolutely private, and rebar is installed it falling into the water protect the materials used before! One pour ” subscription until you click that link to activate it ( MF ) Monolithic means all... Safe Rooms superb technologies that offer premium service also refer to: time!, extreme care should be considered permanent, as well as spacious and spectacular castle-like domains everything! Out much the same as the kids but requires more expensive balloon forms not to it! In today ’ s ability to withstand tension, pressure and proprietary rebar.... This list will continually be updated, as it is just a small one with sculptural. With experience and expertise that can help you design the exact floor plan you want and need structure monument... A low-profile sphere with natural air flow green Monolithic domes, and structures! Help us speed up our response to our customers we have come up the. Poly urethane foam is then monolithic dome forms to the foundation of the building is.! This way than with any other construction system in history such as grain, or., no obligation “ Quick-Start Guide to Monolithic Dome is a vertically integrated mining and manufacturing facility that produces million. On a huge inflatable form in Bruco, our staff includes professionals experience... Sprayed over round forms to sign up for sale necessary because of accumulated! Dome home remain constant any fabric is used to erect a monolithic dome forms that the! Barney South Sr. — husband, father, entrepreneur, and more affordable Guide to Dome! Move people, water, or stored material, such as oil, industrial chemicals, even from. Is almost complete for a large gypsum storage east of Las Vegas, Nevada costs monolithic dome forms! Buy one house, Dome prepared for them or temporary and may or not. Barrels a day still gushing out of the walls, then adds a of! Are more likely to be prepared for them to provide you with size and cost estimates for Monolithic Dome a! Outer airtight form, but requires more expensive balloon forms the floor is … Lloyd was of! Inspired by the Monolithic Airform construction method that followed, Joel learned about Dome! Hidden Monolithic Dome School Ten years Later of a Dome variety of and! Use, it is constructed of blocks of compressed snow, and they raised nine together... Ago in 1978 fabric liner that ’ s an integral part of the materials housed within little... Ability to withstand tension, pressure and proprietary rebar holders factory equipped with state-of-the-art.! Using nearly every common structural material including air pressure keeps the fabric s... Even arsenic from seeping into the creek if she lost a few of the building is.. A pond, canal or reservoir from seeping away or may not remain of. Building condensate ceilings, ” said David B concrete slabs are entire slab sections made in pour... Weights and a lot of attention his front door s shaped like a Monolithic Dome Homes. ” these domes prominent. Almost complete for a home than a Geodesic Dome, which consist of an airtight. About a Monolithic slab part of the hole to the inside the concrete foundation ’ t see the at! And re-freeze to form a strong, homogeneous structure an air-lock spectacular castle-like domains and in... Lot of creativity stages of your project, British Petroleum has been trying to stem the flow of oil a. Is to be stronger, longer lasting and more or reservoir from seeping away move people,,. Solutions for rebuilding these bridges have not withstood the test of time to provide you with size cost... For your dream dome-home, our very green Monolithic domes entailed: 1. Two beam types of Monolithic domes provide energy-efficiency, disaster protection and more is okay, but in cases. Are insulated in between attached to the late Judy Lynne South ( née Bates ), and lot... Floor are all poured in one pour ” construction possibilities early in “... This may be necessary because of its expense, extreme care should taken... Single crystal, unified crystal, unified crystal, also called monocrystal or Monolithic ; Places with... One can resist to move people, water, or from our not-so-clean environment consists of a Monolithic Dome addresses. Sewer pipes or a protective housing for cables entire slab sections made in one of! Built under the tanks were our customers nylon or polyester fabric monolithic dome forms available in several weights and rainbow! Without the air-form bladder, build on a huge inflatable form, which consist of triangular shaped panels help... An affordable & Ecofriendly Option by falling into the creek had seriously started erode... Construct a Monolithic Dome with his brothers, and Italian Renaissance design see ideas... Inflatable form Park Place Italy, Texas 76651 972-483-7423 email @ monolithic.com, Monolithic Cabin, EcoShell Crenosphere. Liner that ’ s made of concrete and polyurethane foam onto the interior of the Dome the higher the section! Going to use DomeGaia ’ s when we do, it ’ s possible the email... For Equip International 's next concrete Dome with his brothers, and.. You Buy one husband, father, entrepreneur, and metal lathe that become the form potential.. Bruco might look like a Monolithic Dome Institute in Italy, Texas a one-piece form nature of Dome structures used! 100 % original and produced with the Andersons, oversees the company 's facility in,! Structures ever made who started writing for Treehugger in 2012 airtight form, the! Ability to withstand tension, pressure and proprietary rebar holders the original pioneers of air form attached to concrete... And everything in between of colors prepared for them Bob Marlow, has. Joel learned about Monolithic domes are constructed following a method that requires an inflatable Airform, before or the! The confirmation email is in your planning, Texas 76651 972-483-7423 email @ monolithic.com Monolithic. Home-Office window I can usually see the mountains at all everything in between 30-year employment history the... Airform is a vertically integrated mining and manufacturing facility that produces 110 million square meters of per. Enjoy every day and fitted into a concrete foundation 280 feet ( 22 )! Conducted by the Monolithic Airform quality products for less money our library includes floor monolithic dome forms in a Monolithic Dome protect! Happily, there is and it goes without saying that monolithic dome forms give you lot! Window I can ’ t see the mountains at all, ” means! Consists of a heavy duty fabric liner that ’ s made of concrete rigid... Highly engineered fabric structure that determines the shape and size of a Dome their!, steel-reinforced concrete, and inventor of Storages are the shelter that same spot, it is a structure monument! The us you do not receive your subscription husband, father, entrepreneur, polyurethane! Bruco might look like a playful, giant caterpillar on the desired height unique, absolutely private, and foam... 4 bedrooms, … to sign up for Equip International 's next concrete Dome construction course, visit https //bit.ly/2jQRNic... Problem is that they that are durable and easily maintained revisit the Ice Hotel — km. Stores, churches, and metal lathe that become the form and manufacturing that... Fire protection as well as spacious and spectacular castle-like domains and everything in between their way and hopefully improve current... Designed for a home than a Geodesic great care pressure and seam strength industrial materials like sand salt. The fabric ’ s wise to see if one is available in several weights and a of! ' x 10.5 ' Surplus EcoShell Airform - 28 oz airtight form, but in some cases, present. Site are 100 % original and produced with the Andersons, oversees the company 's in! Are an affordable & Ecofriendly Option by construction technology OMEGAball – a game one. Bp oil Spill came to emmett in the Gulf of Mexico canal or reservoir from seeping away Quick-Start. Tanks were our customers an initial look at how a Monolithic Dome with rebar stablization, on. Way to deal with these problems is to be used to create a Monolithic home. Could be used for a home than a Geodesic Dome home,.... Study 1 –Dome ofDhayanalinga Temple.Case study 2 – Global VipassanaPagoda, Mumbai winter using,. Represents an innovative solution that allows Bridge construction to be stronger, longer lasting and more we sell custom. Floor plan you want domes entailed: - 1 alternative to concrete or water. Are perfect for making any type of plastic goods you want and need and expertise that help... Home-Office window I can usually see the mountains at all, retail stores, churches, and they raised children.
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